Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part II) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students. 

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part II, we'll be looking at what Aristotle meant by 'virtue'.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part I) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students. 

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part I, we'll be looking at Aristotle’s approach and fundamental arguments in the Nicomachean Ethics.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part IV)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part IV/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part IV, we'll be engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part III - Sigmund Freud)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part III/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part III, we'll be discussing Sigmund Freud's view of the conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part II - Saint Thomas Aquinas)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part II/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Saint Thomas Aquinas' view of the conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/wrestles with its unconscious desires
Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part I/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing the history of the word conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part IV)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part IV/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part IV, we'll be engaging in some Further Analysis and Discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part III)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part III/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part III, we'll be discussing Alienation and Exploitation.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part II/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Internal Contradictions and Revolution.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part I/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Karl Marx's life and influences.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part III, Goff and Papineau answer your questions.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part II, Goff and Papineau conclude their open debate. 

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part I)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part I).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part I, Goff and Papineau begin their open debate. 

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 24, The A. C. Grayling Interview (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 24 (Part II/II) The A. C. Grayling Interview.

Philosopher and master of the New College of the Humanities professor A. C. Grayling is considered by many to be amongst the greatest and most influential philosophers of our time. Professor Grayling has published around 40 books in philosophy, history of ideas, human rights and ethics. These include the Refutation of Scepticism, The Future of Moral Values, Wittgenstein, The Meaning of Things, The God Argument and The Age of Genius. Professor Grayling is an exceptional example of someone who has lived the examined life. In this fascinating interview, we ask Professor Grayling about a broad range of philosophical topics. This is a must listen for anyone interested in philosophy.

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing A. C. Grayling's views.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Examined Life (Start of Part I)
Part II. A. C. Grayling: The Philosopher (Start of Part II)

Episode 24, The A. C. Grayling Interview (Part I)

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Hello and welcome to Episode 24 (Part I/II) The A. C. Grayling Interview.

Philosopher and master of the New College of the Humanities professor A. C. Grayling is considered by many to be amongst the greatest and most influential philosophers of our time. Professor Grayling has published around 40 books in philosophy, history of ideas, human rights and ethics. These include the Refutation of Scepticism, The Future of Moral Values, Wittgenstein, The Meaning of Things, The God Argument and The Age of Genius. Professor Grayling is an exceptional example of someone who has lived the examined life. In this fascinating interview, we ask Professor Grayling about a broad range of philosophical topics. This is a must listen for anyone interested in philosophy.

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing the examined life and whether or not it is worth living.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Examined Life (Start of Part I)
Part II. A. C. Grayling: The Philosopher (Start of Part II)

Episode 23, John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 23 (Part II/II) on John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy.

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The following is a quotation from Colin Heydt: Writing of John Stuart Mill a few days after Mill’s death, Henry Sidgwick claimed, “I should say that from about 1860-65 or thereabouts he ruled England in the region of thought as very few men ever did: I do not expect to see anything like it again.” Mill established this rule over English thought through his writings in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and current affairs. One can say with relative security, looking at the breadth and complexity of his work, that Mill was the greatest nineteenth-century British philosopher.

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Mill's Subjection of Women as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Utilitarianism (7:30)
Part II. On Liberty (17:00)
Part III. Subjection of Women (00:05 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (23:15 in Part II)

A special thank you to Stefan Hagel for this episode's opening music. You can find more ancient music and more of Stefan's work here.

The comprehensive and brilliant History of Philosophy without any gaps is a must listen. You can find the podcast here.


Episode 23, John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Hello and welcome to Episode 23 (Part I/II) on John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy.

The following is a quotation from Colin Heydt: Writing of John Stuart Mill a few days after Mill’s death, Henry Sidgwick claimed, “I should say that from about 1860-65 or thereabouts he ruled England in the region of thought as very few men ever did: I do not expect to see anything like it again.” Mill established this rule over English thought through his writings in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and current affairs. One can say with relative security, looking at the breadth and complexity of his work, that Mill was the greatest nineteenth-century British philosopher.

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Mill's Utilitarianism and On Liberty

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/allows its people to flourish
Part I. Utilitarianism (7:30)
Part II. On Liberty (17:00)
Part III. Subjection of Women (00:05 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (23:15 in Part II)

A special thank you to Stefan Hagel for this episode's opening music. You can find more ancient music and more of Stefan's work here.

The comprehensive and brilliant History of Philosophy without any gaps is a must listen. You can find the podcast here.


Episode 22, John Locke's Political Philosophy (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 22 (Part II/II) on John Locke's Political Philosophy. 

Born in Somerset, England 1632 and died in Essex, at the age of 72 in 1704, John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17th century. Locke’s main political work, Two Treatise of Government, was published in anonymously in 1689. The First Treatise is a sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Divine Right of Kings, whilst the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. Our main focus today is the second treatise of government. Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of nature that recall, is "war of every man against every man,". Locke argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God. He proceeds by explaining the hypothetical rise of property and civilisation, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those consented to by the people. Ultimately for Locke, a government that rules without the consent of the people can ultimately be overthrown. For many, the language of the second treatise of government echoes throughout the declaration of independence. In the words of Thomas Jefferson: "Bacon, Locke and Newton, I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived".

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Locke's idea of property, civil society and engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Nigel Warburton and David Edmond's fantastic podcast Philosophy Bites is a must listen. Click here to visit their website.


Part I. State of Nature (19:15)
Part II. Property (00:05 in Part II)
Part III. Civil Society (15:50 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)

Episode 22, John Locke's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 22 (Part I/II) on John Locke's Political Philosophy. 

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Born in Somerset, England 1632 and died in Essex, at the age of 72 in 1704, John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17th century. Locke’s main political work, Two Treatise of Government, was published in anonymously in 1689. The First Treatise is a sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Divine Right of Kings, whilst the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. Our main focus today is the second treatise of government. Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of nature that recall, is "war of every man against every man,". Locke argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God. He proceeds by explaining the hypothetical rise of property and civilisation, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those consented to by the people. Ultimately for Locke, a government that rules without the consent of the people can ultimately be overthrown. For many, the language of the second treatise of government echoes throughout the declaration of independence. In the words of Thomas Jefferson: "Bacon, Locke and Newton, I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived".

This week in Part I, we'll be introducing Locke and his take on the state of nature.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.


The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/mixes its labour with your device
Part I. State of Nature (19:15)
Part II. Property (00:05 in Part II)
Part III. Civil Society (15:50 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)

Nigel Warburton and David Edmond's fantastic podcast Philosophy Bites is a must listen. Click here to visit their website.


Episode 21, Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 21 (Part II of II) on Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy.

Few political thinkers can be considered as influential as Thomas Hobbes. Published in 1651, Hobbes’s most famous work, the Leviathan (or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil), argues that to leave a hypothetical state of nature, we must sign a social contract and submit ourselves to be ruled by an absolute sovereign. The state of nature is “a war of all against all”. The only rational way out for Hobbes is to establish a strong and undivided government. In this episode we’ll be asking questions like; Who was Hobbes and why is he important? What is human nature? Why do we need government?

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Hobbes's solution to the state of nature, as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. Life and Historical Context (03:00)
Part II. The State of Nature (13:45)
Part III. The Solution (00:10 - in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (18:15 - in Part II)