Episode 31, Ludwig Wittgenstein with Prof. Richard Gaskin (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 31 on Ludwig Wittgenstein (Part II of II) with Prof. Richard Gaskin.

Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher whose work focused on the philosophy of mathematics, logic, the philosophy of mind, and most notably, the philosophy of language.

Wittgenstein’s influence on the world of philosophy has been phenomenal. The study of philosophy was immensely important to Wittgenstein, not only as an academic discipline but as a form of therapy. In Ludwig’s own words, he describes philosophy as, "the only work that gives me real satisfaction".

Wittgenstein’s work can be divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus (our focus for Part I), and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations (which is our focus for Part II). Early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world. He thought that by providing an account of this relationship, he had solved every philosophical problem. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game.

Wittgenstein’s life and work are astonishing. His mentor, Bertrand Russell, described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations from 1953. 

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Part I. The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (08:00 in Part I)

Part II. The Philosophical Investigations (start of Part II)

Part III. Further Analysis and Discussion (45:45 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 31, Ludwig Wittgenstein with Prof. Richard Gaskin (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 31 on Ludwig Wittgenstein (Part I of II) with Prof. Richard Gaskin.

Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher whose work focused on the philosophy of mathematics, logic, the philosophy of mind, and most notably, the philosophy of language.

Wittgenstein’s influence on the world of philosophy has been phenomenal. The study of philosophy was immensely important to Wittgenstein, not only as an academic discipline but as a form of therapy. In Ludwig’s own words, he describes philosophy as, "the only work that gives me real satisfaction".

Wittgenstein’s work can be divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus (our focus for Part I), and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations (which is our focus for Part II). Early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world. He thought that by providing an account of this relationship, he had solved every philosophical problem. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game.

Wittgenstein’s life and work are astonishing. His mentor, Bertrand Russell, described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus from 1921. 

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/throws away the ladder after it has climbed it

Part I. The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (08:00 in Part I)

Part II. The Philosophical Investigations (start of Part II)

Part III. Further Analysis and Discussion (45:45 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 30, Friedrich Nietzsche - with Mark Linsenmayer and Gregory Sadler (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 30 (Part II of II) on Friedrich Nietzsche with Mark Linsenmayer and Dr Gregory Sadler.

Born in Rocken, in Prussia in 1844, Nietzsche set out his career in philology but later turned to writing idiosyncratic philosophical treatise and collections of aphorisms. He directed these against the pious dogmas of Christianity and traditional philosophy. He saw both as self-serving veils drawn over the harsher realities of life. He felt we needed not a high moral or theological ideals but a deeply critical form of cultural genealogy that would uncover the reasons why we humans are as we are and how we have come to be this way. He believed that every great philosopher actually a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir rather than conducting an impersonal search for knowledge. Studying our own moral genealogy cannot help us escape or transcend ourselves but it can enable us to see our illusions more clearly and lead a more vital, assertive existence. 

There is no God in this picture. The human beings who created God have also killed him. It is now up to us alone. The way to live is not to throw ourselves into faith but into our own lives, conducting them in affirmation of every moment, exactly as it without wishing anything was different and without harbouring resentment for others or our fate (Sarah Bakewell, The Existentialist Cafe, p.19-20).

This week in Part II, we'll be looking at what Nietzsche can teach us, as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion. 

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. What is the philosophical underpinning of Nietzsche? (36:40 in Part I)

Part II. An Introduction to Nietzsche’s Thought (50:00 in Part I)

Part III. What can Nietzsche teach us? (00:05 in Part II)

Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (28:15 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 30, Friedrich Nietzsche - with Mark Linsenmayer and Gregory Sadler (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 30 (Part I of II) on Friedrich Nietzsche with Mark Linsenmayer and Dr Gregory Sadler.

Born in Rocken, in Prussia in 1844, Nietzsche set out his career in philology but later turned to writing idiosyncratic philosophical treatise and collections of aphorisms. He directed these against the pious dogmas of Christianity and traditional philosophy. He saw both as self-serving veils drawn over the harsher realities of life. He felt we needed not a high moral or theological ideals but a deeply critical form of cultural genealogy that would uncover the reasons why we humans are as we are and how we have come to be this way. He believed that every great philosopher actually a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir rather than conducting an impersonal search for knowledge. Studying our own moral genealogy cannot help us escape or transcend ourselves but it can enable us to see our illusions more clearly and lead a more vital, assertive existence. 

There is no God in this picture. The human beings who created God have also killed him. It is now up to us alone. The way to live is not to throw ourselves into faith but into our own lives, conducting them in affirmation of every moment, exactly as it without wishing anything was different and without harbouring resentment for others or our fate (Sarah Bakewell, The Existentialist Cafe, p.19-20).

This week in Part I, we'll be looking at the thinkers who influenced Nietzsche, as well as introducing you to his philosophy. 

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. What is the philosophical underpinning of Nietzsche? (36:40 in Part I)

Part II. An Introduction to Nietzsche’s Thought (50:00 in Part I)

Part III. What can Nietzsche teach us? (00:05 in Part II)

Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (28:15 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 29, Stephen Law and 'The Evil-God Challenge' (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 29 (Part II), where we'll be interviewing Dr Stephen Law and discussing his 'Evil-God Challenge'.

Dr Stephen Law is a Reader in philosophy at Heythrop College, University of London, and editor of the Royal Institute of Philosophy journal THINK. Amongst many other books, Stephen Law is the author of A Very Short Introduction to Humanism, The War for Children's Minds, The Philosophy Gym, and Believing Bullshit: How Not to Get Sucked into an Intellectual Black Hole.

Stephen Law has debated many Christian philosophers, including William Lane Craig, John Lennox and Alvin Plantinga. Our central focus today is Law’s main argument against the existence of God – 'The Evil-God Challenge'. The evil-god challenge can be stated as follows: why should we consider the hypothesis that there exists a good-god, significantly more reasonable than the hypothesis that there exists an evil-god?

This week in Part II, we'll be analysing the 'Evil-God Challenge'.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Evil-God Challenge (start of Part I)
Part II. Further Analysis and Discussion (start of Part II)

Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 29, Stephen Law and 'The Evil-God Challenge' (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 29 (Part I), where we'll be interviewing Dr Stephen Law and discussing his 'Evil-God Challenge'.

Dr Stephen Law is a Reader in philosophy at Heythrop College, University of London, and editor of the Royal Institute of Philosophy journal THINK. Amongst many other books, Stephen Law is the author of A Very Short Introduction to Humanism, The War for Children's Minds, The Philosophy Gym, and Believing Bullshit: How Not to Get Sucked into an Intellectual Black Hole.

Stephen Law has debated many Christian philosophers, including William Lane Craig, John Lennox and Alvin Plantinga. Our central focus today is Law’s main argument against the existence of God – 'The Evil-God Challenge'. The evil-god challenge can be stated as follows: why should we consider the hypothesis that there exists a good-god, significantly more reasonable than the hypothesis that there exists an evil-god?

This week in Part I, we'll be introducing Stephen and setting up the 'Evil-God Challenge'.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Evil-God Challenge (start of Part I)
Part II. Further Analysis and Discussion (start of Part II)

Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast

Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part IV)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part IV) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students.

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part IV, we'll be engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part III)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part III) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students.

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part III, we'll be applying virtue ethics and looking at Book X of the Nicomachean Ethics.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part II) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students. 

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part II, we'll be looking at what Aristotle meant by 'virtue'.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads virtuously
Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 28, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 28 (Part I) on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s (384 – 322 BC) best-known work on ethics. The work consists of ten books and is understood to be based on Aristotle’s lecture notes. These notes were never intended for publication. Sometimes his notes are merely cues to talk more generally about a subject, other times they are more representative of what Aristotle would have actually said to his students. 

The Nicomachean Ethics is amongst the most discussed texts in history and philosophers continue to debate its contents and intended purposes today.  One cannot deny, however, that Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is concerned with key political and ethical questions – Questions like, How can we do what is best for citizens? and What is the good life and how do we achieve it?

This week in Part I, we'll be looking at Aristotle’s approach and fundamental arguments in the Nicomachean Ethics.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Aristotle’s Approach and Fundamental Arguments. (start of Part I)
Part II. Virtue as Excellence. (start of Part II)
Part III. Book X and Application. (start of Part III)
Part IV.  Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part IV)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part IV/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part IV, we'll be engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part III - Sigmund Freud)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part III/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part III, we'll be discussing Sigmund Freud's view of the conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/wrestles with its unconscious desires
Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part II - Saint Thomas Aquinas)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part II/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Saint Thomas Aquinas' view of the conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/wrestles with its unconscious desires
Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 27, Conscience (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 27 (Part I/IV) on the conscience.

Most people understand conscience as something which tells us right from wrong. The conscience is that little voice in your head that tells you to do your homework, go to bed on time and eat 5 a day. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary defines conscience as: “A person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour.”

We’re going to be questioning this definition extensively. What is conscience? Where does the conscience come from? Where does the word conscience come from? Is conscience fundamental in its own right, or is it acquired through our development? Does the conscience carry any moral authority, and if so, what should be the function of conscience in ethical decision-making? Is conscience just an illusion?

To aid our exploration of these questions, we’re going to be consulting C. S. Lewis’ Studies in Words in Part I, Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae in Part II and Sigmund Freud’s The Ego and the Id in Part III. In Part IV we’ll wrap up the show with some further analysis and discussion and the return of philosophical ultimatum. 

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing the history of the word conscience.

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Etymology of Conscience. (start of Part I)
Part II. St. Thomas Aquinas and the Conscience. (start of Part II)
Part III. Sigmund Freud and the Conscience. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part IV)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part IV/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part IV, we'll be engaging in some Further Analysis and Discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part III)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part III/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part III, we'll be discussing Alienation and Exploitation.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part II/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Internal Contradictions and Revolution.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part I/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Karl Marx's life and influences.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/sparks a revolution
Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part III, Goff and Papineau answer your questions.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part II, Goff and Papineau conclude their open debate. 

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)