Episode 26, Karl Marx's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 26 (Part I/IV) on Karl Marx's Political Philosophy.

Karl Marx is one of the most influential figures in human history. The Prussian-born philosopher, economist, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, produced some of the most controversial and influential works in the past two-hundred years. A champion of human rights for many and a dangerous radical for many others; Karl Marx, the communist, is considered one of the principal architects of modern social science. Regardless of your own points of view, it is hard to deny that Marx's critique of capitalism is relevant today. In January 2017, Oxfam published An Economy for the 99%, which found that the richest 8 men in the world are worth more than the poorest 3.6 billion. In 1848, alongside Friedrich Engels, Marx produced the Manifesto of the Communist Party. In the concluding remarks, Marx writes, "The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!" 

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Karl Marx's life and influences.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Karl Marx's Life and Influences. (start of Part I)
Part II. Internal Contradictions and Revolution. (start of Part II)
Part III. Alienation and Exploitation. (start of Part III)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (start of Part IV)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part III).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part III, Goff and Papineau answer your questions.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part II).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part II, Goff and Papineau conclude their open debate. 

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part I)

Hello and welcome to Episode 25, Philip Goff and David Papineau Debate: 'Can Science Explain Consciousness?' (Part I).

In the words of David Chalmers, “The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect. As Nagel has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience.”

Debating the question, 'Does physicalism address the hard problem of consciousness?' are Philip Goff and David Papineau.

This week in Part I, Goff and Papineau begin their open debate. 

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Open Debate (Part I - 13:25)
Part II. Listener Questions (Start of Part III)

Episode 24, The A. C. Grayling Interview (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 24 (Part II/II) The A. C. Grayling Interview.

Philosopher and master of the New College of the Humanities professor A. C. Grayling is considered by many to be amongst the greatest and most influential philosophers of our time. Professor Grayling has published around 40 books in philosophy, history of ideas, human rights and ethics. These include the Refutation of Scepticism, The Future of Moral Values, Wittgenstein, The Meaning of Things, The God Argument and The Age of Genius. Professor Grayling is an exceptional example of someone who has lived the examined life. In this fascinating interview, we ask Professor Grayling about a broad range of philosophical topics. This is a must listen for anyone interested in philosophy.

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing A. C. Grayling's views.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Examined Life (Start of Part I)
Part II. A. C. Grayling: The Philosopher (Start of Part II)

Episode 24, The A. C. Grayling Interview (Part I)

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Hello and welcome to Episode 24 (Part I/II) The A. C. Grayling Interview.

Philosopher and master of the New College of the Humanities professor A. C. Grayling is considered by many to be amongst the greatest and most influential philosophers of our time. Professor Grayling has published around 40 books in philosophy, history of ideas, human rights and ethics. These include the Refutation of Scepticism, The Future of Moral Values, Wittgenstein, The Meaning of Things, The God Argument and The Age of Genius. Professor Grayling is an exceptional example of someone who has lived the examined life. In this fascinating interview, we ask Professor Grayling about a broad range of philosophical topics. This is a must listen for anyone interested in philosophy.

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing the examined life and whether or not it is worth living.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. The Examined Life (Start of Part I)
Part II. A. C. Grayling: The Philosopher (Start of Part II)

Episode 23, John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy (Part II)

Hello and welcome to Episode 23 (Part II/II) on John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy.

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The following is a quotation from Colin Heydt: Writing of John Stuart Mill a few days after Mill’s death, Henry Sidgwick claimed, “I should say that from about 1860-65 or thereabouts he ruled England in the region of thought as very few men ever did: I do not expect to see anything like it again.” Mill established this rule over English thought through his writings in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and current affairs. One can say with relative security, looking at the breadth and complexity of his work, that Mill was the greatest nineteenth-century British philosopher.

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Mill's Subjection of Women as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Utilitarianism (7:30)
Part II. On Liberty (17:00)
Part III. Subjection of Women (00:05 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (23:15 in Part II)

A special thank you to Stefan Hagel for this episode's opening music. You can find more ancient music and more of Stefan's work here.

The comprehensive and brilliant History of Philosophy without any gaps is a must listen. You can find the podcast here.


Episode 23, John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Hello and welcome to Episode 23 (Part I/II) on John Stuart Mill's Political Philosophy.

The following is a quotation from Colin Heydt: Writing of John Stuart Mill a few days after Mill’s death, Henry Sidgwick claimed, “I should say that from about 1860-65 or thereabouts he ruled England in the region of thought as very few men ever did: I do not expect to see anything like it again.” Mill established this rule over English thought through his writings in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and current affairs. One can say with relative security, looking at the breadth and complexity of his work, that Mill was the greatest nineteenth-century British philosopher.

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Mill's Utilitarianism and On Liberty

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Part I. Utilitarianism (7:30)
Part II. On Liberty (17:00)
Part III. Subjection of Women (00:05 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (23:15 in Part II)

A special thank you to Stefan Hagel for this episode's opening music. You can find more ancient music and more of Stefan's work here.

The comprehensive and brilliant History of Philosophy without any gaps is a must listen. You can find the podcast here.


Episode 22, John Locke's Political Philosophy (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 22 (Part II/II) on John Locke's Political Philosophy. 

Born in Somerset, England 1632 and died in Essex, at the age of 72 in 1704, John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17th century. Locke’s main political work, Two Treatise of Government, was published in anonymously in 1689. The First Treatise is a sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Divine Right of Kings, whilst the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. Our main focus today is the second treatise of government. Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of nature that recall, is "war of every man against every man,". Locke argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God. He proceeds by explaining the hypothetical rise of property and civilisation, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those consented to by the people. Ultimately for Locke, a government that rules without the consent of the people can ultimately be overthrown. For many, the language of the second treatise of government echoes throughout the declaration of independence. In the words of Thomas Jefferson: "Bacon, Locke and Newton, I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived".

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Locke's idea of property, civil society and engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.

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Nigel Warburton and David Edmond's fantastic podcast Philosophy Bites is a must listen. Click here to visit their website.


Part I. State of Nature (19:15)
Part II. Property (00:05 in Part II)
Part III. Civil Society (15:50 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)

Episode 22, John Locke's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 22 (Part I/II) on John Locke's Political Philosophy. 

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Born in Somerset, England 1632 and died in Essex, at the age of 72 in 1704, John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17th century. Locke’s main political work, Two Treatise of Government, was published in anonymously in 1689. The First Treatise is a sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Divine Right of Kings, whilst the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. Our main focus today is the second treatise of government. Locke begins by describing the state of nature, a picture much more stable than Thomas Hobbes' state of nature that recall, is "war of every man against every man,". Locke argues that all men are created equal in the state of nature by God. He proceeds by explaining the hypothetical rise of property and civilisation, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those consented to by the people. Ultimately for Locke, a government that rules without the consent of the people can ultimately be overthrown. For many, the language of the second treatise of government echoes throughout the declaration of independence. In the words of Thomas Jefferson: "Bacon, Locke and Newton, I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived".

This week in Part I, we'll be introducing Locke and his take on the state of nature.

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast.


The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/mixes its labour with your device
Part I. State of Nature (19:15)
Part II. Property (00:05 in Part II)
Part III. Civil Society (15:50 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)

Nigel Warburton and David Edmond's fantastic podcast Philosophy Bites is a must listen. Click here to visit their website.


Episode 21, Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 21 (Part II of II) on Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy.

Few political thinkers can be considered as influential as Thomas Hobbes. Published in 1651, Hobbes’s most famous work, the Leviathan (or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil), argues that to leave a hypothetical state of nature, we must sign a social contract and submit ourselves to be ruled by an absolute sovereign. The state of nature is “a war of all against all”. The only rational way out for Hobbes is to establish a strong and undivided government. In this episode we’ll be asking questions like; Who was Hobbes and why is he important? What is human nature? Why do we need government?

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Hobbes's solution to the state of nature, as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. Life and Historical Context (03:00)
Part II. The State of Nature (13:45)
Part III. The Solution (00:10 - in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (18:15 - in Part II)

Episode 21, Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 21 (Part I of II) on Thomas Hobbes's Political Philosophy.

Few political thinkers can be considered as influential as Thomas Hobbes. Published in 1651, Hobbes’s most famous work, the Leviathan (or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil), argues that to leave a hypothetical state of nature, we must sign a social contract and submit ourselves to be ruled by an absolute sovereign. The state of nature is “a war of all against all”. The only rational way out for Hobbes is to establish a strong and undivided government. In this episode we’ll be asking questions like; Who was Hobbes and why is he important? What is human nature? Why do we need government?

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Hobbes's life and the state of nature. 

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/submits itself to a sovereign
Part I. Life and Historical Context (03:00)
Part II. The State of Nature (13:45)
Part III. The Solution (00:10 - in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (18:15 - in Part II)

Episode 20, Plato's Political Philosophy (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 20 (Part II of II) on Plato's Political Philosophy.

This episode benchmarks the beginning of our mini-series on political philosophy. Plato provides a strong critique of democracy through his formulation of a utopian city-state. By attempting to find justice in the city, Plato prompts us to question whether or not democracy can promote the common good. In this episode we'll be asking questions like; What is justice? Is democracy worthless? and What can we learn from Plato today?

This week in Part II, we'll be applying Plato's political philosophy to the contemporary world, as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. Socratic Dialogues in Gorgias and The Republic (08:15)
Part II. The Republic (31:35)
Part III. Real World Application (00:10 - in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (22:40 - in Part II)
Note: In this episode, on a couple of occasions, Jack mistakenly mixes up the names Gorgias and Glaucon. Although this has no philosophical importance, heckling is nevertheless encouraged.

Episode 20, Plato's Political Philosophy (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 20 (Part I of II) on Plato's Political Philosophy.

This episode benchmarks the beginning of our mini-series on political philosophy. Plato provides a strong critique of democracy through his formulation of a utopian city-state. By attempting to find justice in the city, Plato prompts us to question whether or not democracy can promote the common good. In this episode we'll be asking questions like; What is justice? Is democracy worthless? and What can we learn from Plato today?

This week in Part I, we'll be talking about the Socratic Dialogues in Gorgias and The Republic, as well as looking at Plato's utopian city state in The Republic.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/finds justice in the city

Part I. Socratic Dialogues in Gorgias and The Republic (08:15)
Part II. The Republic (31:35)
Part III. Real World Application (00:10 - in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (22:40 - in Part II)
Note: In this episode, on a couple of occasions, Jack mistakenly mixes up the names Gorgias and Glaucon. Although this has no philosophical importance, heckling is nevertheless encouraged.

Episode 19, Mind, Body and Consciousness (Part II)

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Welcome to Episode 19 (Part II of II) on Mind, Body and Consciousness.

For Episode 19, I'm joined by Gregory Miller and Dr Thom Atkinson from the University of Liverpool. As well as introducing the questions and problems surrounding consciousness and mind; we'll be discussing substance dualism, materialism and panpsychism.

This week in Part II, we'll be talking about panpsychism and enjoying some further analysis and discussion.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. Substance Dualism (09:20)
Part II. Materialism (33:45)
Part III. Panpsychism (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (16:40 in Part II)

Episode 19, Mind, Body and Consciousness (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 19 (Part I of II) on Mind, Body and Consciousness.

For Episode 19, I'm joined by Gregory Miller and Dr Thom Atkinson from the University of Liverpool. As well as introducing the questions and problems surrounding consciousness and mind; we'll be discussing substance dualism, materialism and panpsychism.

This week in Part I, we'll be talking about substance dualism and materialism.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/causally interacts with your body via the pineal gland
Part I. Substance Dualism (09:20)
Part II. Materialism (33:45)
Part III. Panpsychism (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (16:40 in Part II)

Episode 18, Albert Camus (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 18 (Part II of II) on Albert Camus.

Albert Camus (1913-1960) is perhaps the most read philosopher of the 20th century. Camus is generally considered to be the father of absurdism, the idea that life's meaning is beyond our reach and that we should embrace what he called the absurd. Given the extraordinary number of people that have read Camus' work, it is no surprise that he is one of the most romanticised philosophers to have lived. In this two-part special on Camus, we're going to be asking questions like; Who was Albert Camus? Is life worth living? What is the absurd? And How should we deal with the absurd?

This week we'll be talking about Camus' response to the absurd and the sociological aspect of suicide.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. The Life of Camus (04:20)
Part II. The Absurd (16:40)
Part III. Camus' Response to the Absurd (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. The Sociological Aspect of Suicide, Further Analysis and Discussion (15:25 in Part II)

Episode 18, Albert Camus (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 18 (Part I of II) on Albert Camus.

Albert Camus (1913-1960) is perhaps the most read philosopher of the 20th century. Camus is generally considered to be the father of absurdism, the idea that life's meaning is beyond our reach and that we should embrace what he called the absurd. Given the extraordinary number of people that have read Camus' work, it is no surprise that he is one of the most romanticised philosophers to have lived. In this two-part special on Camus, we're going to be asking questions like; Who was Albert Camus? Is life worth living? What is the absurd? And How should we deal with the absurd?

This week we'll be talking about Camus' life and the absurd.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/pushes the boulder back up the hill
Part I. The Life of Camus (04:20)
Part II. The Absurd (16:40)
Part III. Camus' Response to the Absurd (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion (15:25 in Part II)

Episode 17, Jean-Paul Sartre (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 17 (Part II of II) on Jean-Paul Sartre.

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Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was arguably the most influential philosopher of the 20th century. The quintessential existentialist, Sartre encapsulates the very essence of existentialism through his various philosophical works and plays. Sartre still has much to teach us. Still, Sartre would argue too many people live in Bad faith. They ignore that they are "condemned to be free". Amongst other things, we'll be asking, Why did 50,000 people attend his funeral? Are we condemned to be free? And Are we living in bad faith?

This week we'll be talking about what it is to be living in bad faith and engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunes, Android or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

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Part I. The Life of Sartre (03:35)
Part II. "Man is condemned to be free" (18:15)
Part III. Bad Faith (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Anaylsis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)

Episode 17, Jean-Paul Sartre (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 17 (Part I of II) on Jean-Paul Sartre.

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was arguably the most influential philosopher of the 20th century. The quintessential existentialist, Sartre encapsulates the very essence of existentialism through his various philosophical works and plays. Sartre still has much to teach us. Still, Sartre would argue too many people live in Bad faith. They ignore that they are "condemned to be free". Amongst other things, we'll be asking, Why did 50,000 people attend his funeral? Are we condemned to be free? And Are we living in bad faith?

This week we'll be talking about the life of Jean-Paul Sartre and what Sartre meant when he said, "man is condemned to be free".

As always, you can find the main texts as well as links to additional content at the bottom of the page. Please help support the show by subscribing on iTunesAndroid or tunein. Thank you!

Any thoughts? Please tweet us @thepanpsycast or email us at jack@thepanpsychist.com.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/realises it is living in bad faith
Part I. The Life of Sartre (03:35)
Part II. "Man is condemned to be free" (18:15)
Part III. Bad Faith (00:10 in Part II)
Part IV. Further Anaylsis and Discussion (31:40 in Part II)