Episode 42, The Nature or Attributes of God (Part IV - Further Analysis and Discussion)

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Welcome to Episode 42 (Part IV of IV), where we'll be engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

For religious believers, considering the questions that surround the nature or attributes of God, is important in their attempt to form a coherent understanding of their creator.

In the Summa Theologica, shortly after arguing for the existence of God, Saint Thomas Aquinas writes the following: “Having recognised that a certain thing exists, we have still to investigate the way in which it exists, that we may come to understand what it is that exists.” This seems like a peculiar thing to state. I know that there exists something, but I have no idea as to what this thing is. As Brian Davies points out in his book Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology, this not such an odd statement after all. Suppose I attempt to open a door, and something stops it from opening. I might say, ‘well something is certainly in the way’. If it makes sense to make this statement, it also makes sense to ask, 'what is it'?

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/prepares for its final game of philosophical ultimatum

This episode is sponsored by Sudio headphones. Sudio provides some of the highest quality and most fashionable headphones on the market - at an affordable price. Click here to find out more!

Don't forget to use the discount code PANPSY for 15% off any purchase.



Part I. Omnipotence
Part II. Omniscience
Part III. Omnibenevolence
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 42, The Nature or Attributes of God (Part III - Omnibenevolence)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 42 (Part III of IV), where we'll be discussing the philosophical questions surrounding 'omnibenevolence'.

For religious believers, considering the questions that surround the nature or attributes of God, is important in their attempt to form a coherent understanding of their creator.

In the Summa Theologica, shortly after arguing for the existence of God, Saint Thomas Aquinas writes the following: “Having recognised that a certain thing exists, we have still to investigate the way in which it exists, that we may come to understand what it is that exists.” This seems like a peculiar thing to state. I know that there exists something, but I have no idea as to what this thing is. As Brian Davies points out in his book Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology, this not such an odd statement after all. Suppose I attempt to open a door, and something stops it from opening. I might say, ‘well something is certainly in the way’. If it makes sense to make this statement, it also makes sense to ask, 'what is it'?

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/attempts to reconcile evil with its existence

This episode is sponsored by Sudio headphones. Sudio provides some of the highest quality and most fashionable headphones on the market - at an affordable price. Click here to find out more!

Don't forget to use the discount code PANPSY for 15% off any purchase.



Part I. Omnipotence
Part II. Omniscience
Part III. Omnibenevolence
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 42, The Nature or Attributes of God (Part II - Omniscience)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 42 (Part II of IV), where we'll be discussing the philosophical questions surrounding 'omniscience'.

For religious believers, considering the questions that surround the nature or attributes of God, is important in their attempt to form a coherent understanding of their creator.

In the Summa Theologica, shortly after arguing for the existence of God, Saint Thomas Aquinas writes the following: “Having recognised that a certain thing exists, we have still to investigate the way in which it exists, that we may come to understand what it is that exists.” This seems like a peculiar thing to state. I know that there exists something, but I have no idea as to what this thing is. As Brian Davies points out in his book Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology, this not such an odd statement after all. Suppose I attempt to open a door, and something stops it from opening. I might say, ‘well something is certainly in the way’. If it makes sense to make this statement, it also makes sense to ask, 'what is it'?

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/attempts to reconcile your knowledge that it will buffer, with its own free-will

This episode is sponsored by Sudio headphones. Sudio provides some of the highest quality and most fashionable headphones on the market - at an affordable price. Click here to find out more!

Don't forget to use the discount code PANPSY for 15% off any purchase.



Part I. Omnipotence
Part II. Omniscience
Part III. Omnibenevolence
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 42, The Nature or Attributes of God (Part I - Omnipotence)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 42 (Part I of IV), where we'll be discussing the philosophical questions surrounding 'omnipotence'.

For religious believers, considering the questions that surround the nature or attributes of God, is important in their attempt to form a coherent understanding of their creator.

In the Summa Theologica, shortly after arguing for the existence of God, Saint Thomas Aquinas writes the following: “Having recognised that a certain thing exists, we have still to investigate the way in which it exists, that we may come to understand what it is that exists.” This seems like a peculiar thing to state. I know that there exists something, but I have no idea as to what this thing is. As Brian Davies points out in his book Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology, this not such an odd statement after all. Suppose I attempt to open a door, and something stops it from opening. I might say, ‘well something is certainly in the way’. If it makes sense to make this statement, it also makes sense to ask, 'what is it'?

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/attempts to do the logically impossible

This episode is sponsored by Sudio headphones. Sudio provides some of the highest quality and most fashionable headphones on the market - at an affordable price. Click here to find out more!

Don't forget to use the discount code PANPSY for 15% off any purchase.



Part I. Omnipotence
Part II. Omniscience
Part III. Omnibenevolence
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 37, Religious Language (Part IV – Further Analysis and Discussion)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 37 (Part IV of IV), where we'll be engaging in some further analysis and discussion.

Broadly speaking, the term 'religious language' refers to statements or claims made about God or gods. Many problems arise in the field of religious language, but our principal focus in this episode will be the problems that arise within the Abrahamic religions (that is, Judaism, Christianity and Islam). Simply put, it is unclear how one could use human-made language, to talk meaningfully about something infinitely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable and infinitely loving. This problem is worrisome to believers as it has the potential to undermine their traditions; if we cannot speak meaningfully about God, then the texts and teachings of Abrahamic faiths can only be deemed unintelligible (i.e. impossible to understand). 

In his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, the 18th Century Scottish philosopher David Hume alluded to the problem as follows:

But when we look beyond human affairs… when we carry our speculations into the two eternities, before and after the present state of things; into the creations and formulation of the universe; the existence and properties of spirits; the powers and operations of one universal Spirit existing without beginning and without end; omnipotent, omniscient, immutable, infinite and incomprehensible: We must be far removed from the smallest tendency to scepticism not to be apprehensive, that we have here got quite the reach of our faculties.
The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/commits itself to the flames

Part I. The Via Negativa
Part II. Saint Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein
Part III. The Verification and Falsification Principles
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 37, Religious Language (Part III - The Verification and Falsification Principles)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 37 (Part III of IV), where we'll be discussing the verification and falsification principles.

Broadly speaking, the term 'religious language' refers to statements or claims made about God or gods. Many problems arise in the field of religious language, but our principal focus in this episode will be the problems that arise within the Abrahamic religions (that is, Judaism, Christianity and Islam). Simply put, it is unclear how one could use human-made language, to talk meaningfully about something infinitely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable and infinitely loving. This problem is worrisome to believers as it has the potential to undermine their traditions; if we cannot speak meaningfully about God, then the texts and teachings of Abrahamic faiths can only be deemed unintelligible (i.e. impossible to understand). 

In his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, the 18th Century Scottish philosopher David Hume alluded to the problem as follows:

But when we look beyond human affairs… when we carry our speculations into the two eternities, before and after the present state of things; into the creations and formulation of the universe; the existence and properties of spirits; the powers and operations of one universal Spirit existing without beginning and without end; omnipotent, omniscient, immutable, infinite and incomprehensible: We must be far removed from the smallest tendency to scepticism not to be apprehensive, that we have here got quite the reach of our faculties.
The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/commits itself to the flames

Part I. The Via Negativa
Part II. Saint Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein
Part III. The Verification and Falsification Principles
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 37, Religious Language (Part II – Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 37 (Part II of IV), where we'll be discussing Saint Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Broadly speaking, the term 'religious language' refers to statements or claims made about God or gods. Many problems arise in the field of religious language, but our principal focus in this episode will be the problems that arise within the Abrahamic religions (that is, Judaism, Christianity and Islam). Simply put, it is unclear how one could use human-made language, to talk meaningfully about something infinitely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable and infinitely loving. This problem is worrisome to believers as it has the potential to undermine their traditions; if we cannot speak meaningfully about God, then the texts and teachings of Abrahamic faiths can only be deemed unintelligible (i.e. impossible to understand). 

In his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, the 18th Century Scottish philosopher David Hume alluded to the problem as follows:

But when we look beyond human affairs… when we carry our speculations into the two eternities, before and after the present state of things; into the creations and formulation of the universe; the existence and properties of spirits; the powers and operations of one universal Spirit existing without beginning and without end; omnipotent, omniscient, immutable, infinite and incomprehensible: We must be far removed from the smallest tendency to scepticism not to be apprehensive, that we have here got quite the reach of our faculties.
The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/commits itself to the flames

Part I. The Via Negativa
Part II. Saint Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein
Part III. The Verification and Falsification Principles
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 37, Religious Language (Part I – The Via Negativa)

Classic Cast.jpg

Welcome to Episode 37 (Part I of IV), where we'll be discussing religious language and 'the via negativa', also known as 'the apophatic way'.

Broadly speaking, the term 'religious language' refers to statements or claims made about God or gods. Many problems arise in the field of religious language, but our principal focus in this episode will be the problems that arise within the Abrahamic religions (that is, Judaism, Christianity and Islam). Simply put, it is unclear how one could use human-made language, to talk meaningfully about something infinitely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable and infinitely loving. This problem is worrisome to believers as it has the potential to undermine their traditions; if we cannot speak meaningfully about God, then the texts and teachings of Abrahamic faiths can only be deemed unintelligible (i.e. impossible to understand). 

In his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, the 18th Century Scottish philosopher David Hume alluded to the problem as follows:

But when we look beyond human affairs… when we carry our speculations into the two eternities, before and after the present state of things; into the creations and formulation of the universe; the existence and properties of spirits; the powers and operations of one universal Spirit existing without beginning and without end; omnipotent, omniscient, immutable, infinite and incomprehensible: We must be far removed from the smallest tendency to scepticism not to be apprehensive, that we have here got quite the reach of our faculties.
The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/commits itself to the flames

Part I. The Via Negativa
Part II. Saint Thomas Aquinas and Ludwig Wittgenstein
Part III. The Verification and Falsification Principles
Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion

Episode 36, The Daniel Dennett Interview (Part I - Philosophy of Religion)

Welcome to Episode 36 (Part I of II), where we'll be discussing philosophy of religion with Professor of philosophy, Daniel C. Dennett.

In the words of A. C. Grayling, Professor "Daniel C. Dennett is perhaps the most distinguished philosopher in the world".

In a 2013 study by Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute, alongside philosophers Slavoj Zizek and Peter Singer, Daniel Dennett was ranked amongst the top 5 global thought leaders.

Currently the co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies and the Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University, Daniel is best known for his contributions to cognitive science, philosophy of mind and philosophy of religion. His works Consciousness Explained, Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Breaking the Spell and his latest work, From Bacteria to Bach and Back have had an immense impact in the worlds of philosophy and science. 

For many, Daniel Dennett, known as ‘one of the four horsemen of new atheism’, is a household name, celebrated as a man who has explained away the hard problem of consciousness, religion, and fundamental questions surrounding free-will.

We’re going to be discussing Daniel Dennett’s approach to philosophy of religion in Part I, before we dive into philosophy of mind in Part II.

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Part I. Philosophy of Religion

Part II. Philosophy of Mind


Episode 33, Yujin Nagasawa and 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists' (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 33 on 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists' (Part II of II).

Yujin Nagasawa is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Birmingham, as well as President of the British Society for the Philosophy of Religion and Co-Director of the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Obtaining his PhD from the Australian National University in 2004, Nagasawa’s work in philosophy is extensive, focusing on a range of topics from the problems surrounding consciousness to the nature and existence of God. 

Our focus for Episode 33, is Nagasawa’s ‘The Problem of Evil for Atheists’. The argument can be stated as follows, atheists believe that the world is generally good and they are happy and grateful to exist i.e. they are existential optimists. However, our entire evolutionary biological system is based upon the painful, miserable suffering of the weak. So, why should we think that the world is overall good and that we should be grateful to exist, if our existence depends on a violent, cruel and unfair biological system which guarantees pain and suffering for unaccountably many sentient animals? Nagasawa argues that the theist is in a better position to answer this question than the atheist, suggesting that the problem of evil provides good reason to abandon atheism and adopt theism.

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Part I. 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists'.

Part II. Further Analysis and Discussion.


Episode 33, Yujin Nagasawa and 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists' (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 33 on 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists' (Part I of II).

Yujin Nagasawa is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Birmingham, as well as President of the British Society for the Philosophy of Religion and Co-Director of the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Obtaining his PhD from the Australian National University in 2004, Nagasawa’s work in philosophy is extensive, focusing on a range of topics from the problems surrounding consciousness to the nature and existence of God. 

Our focus for Episode 33, is Nagasawa’s ‘The Problem of Evil for Atheists’. The argument can be stated as follows, atheists believe that the world is generally good and they are happy and grateful to exist i.e. they are existential optimists. However, our entire evolutionary biological system is based upon the painful, miserable suffering of the weak. So, why should we think that the world is overall good and that we should be grateful to exist, if our existence depends on a violent, cruel and unfair biological system which guarantees pain and suffering for unaccountably many sentient animals? Nagasawa argues that the theist is in a better position to answer this question than the atheist, suggesting that the problem of evil provides good reason to abandon atheism and adopt theism.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast optimistically buffers/downloads


Part I. 'The Problem of Evil for Atheists'.

Part II. Further Analysis and Discussion.


Episode 31, Ludwig Wittgenstein with Prof. Richard Gaskin (Part II - Philosophical Investigations)

Welcome to Episode 31 on Ludwig Wittgenstein (Part II of II) with Prof. Richard Gaskin.

Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher whose work focused on the philosophy of mathematics, logic, the philosophy of mind, and most notably, the philosophy of language.

Wittgenstein’s influence on the world of philosophy has been phenomenal. The study of philosophy was immensely important to Wittgenstein, not only as an academic discipline but as a form of therapy. In Ludwig’s own words, he describes philosophy as, "the only work that gives me real satisfaction".

Wittgenstein’s work can be divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus (our focus for Part I), and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations (which is our focus for Part II). Early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world. He thought that by providing an account of this relationship, he had solved every philosophical problem. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game.

Wittgenstein’s life and work are astonishing. His mentor, Bertrand Russell, described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".

This week in Part II, we'll be discussing Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations from 1953. 

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/throws away the ladder after it has climbed it

Part I. The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (08:00 in Part I)

Part II. The Philosophical Investigations (start of Part II)

Part III. Further Analysis and Discussion (45:45 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 31, Ludwig Wittgenstein with Prof. Richard Gaskin (Part I - Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus)

Welcome to Episode 31 on Ludwig Wittgenstein (Part I of II) with Prof. Richard Gaskin.

Ludwig Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher whose work focused on the philosophy of mathematics, logic, the philosophy of mind, and most notably, the philosophy of language.

Wittgenstein’s influence on the world of philosophy has been phenomenal. The study of philosophy was immensely important to Wittgenstein, not only as an academic discipline but as a form of therapy. In Ludwig’s own words, he describes philosophy as, "the only work that gives me real satisfaction".

Wittgenstein’s work can be divided into an early period, exemplified by the Tractatus (our focus for Part I), and a later period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations (which is our focus for Part II). Early Wittgenstein was concerned with the logical relationship between propositions and the world. He thought that by providing an account of this relationship, he had solved every philosophical problem. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the assumptions of the Tractatus, arguing that the meaning of words is best understood as their use within a given language-game.

Wittgenstein’s life and work are astonishing. His mentor, Bertrand Russell, described him as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".

This week in Part I, we'll be discussing Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus from 1921. 

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/throws away the ladder after it has climbed it

Part I. The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (08:00 in Part I)

Part II. The Philosophical Investigations (start of Part II)

Part III. Further Analysis and Discussion (45:45 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 30, Friedrich Nietzsche - with Mark Linsenmayer and Gregory Sadler (Part II)

Welcome to Episode 30 (Part II of II) on Friedrich Nietzsche with Mark Linsenmayer and Dr Gregory Sadler.

Born in Rocken, in Prussia in 1844, Nietzsche set out his career in philology but later turned to writing idiosyncratic philosophical treatise and collections of aphorisms. He directed these against the pious dogmas of Christianity and traditional philosophy. He saw both as self-serving veils drawn over the harsher realities of life. He felt we needed not a high moral or theological ideals but a deeply critical form of cultural genealogy that would uncover the reasons why we humans are as we are and how we have come to be this way. He believed that every great philosopher actually a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir rather than conducting an impersonal search for knowledge. Studying our own moral genealogy cannot help us escape or transcend ourselves but it can enable us to see our illusions more clearly and lead a more vital, assertive existence. 

There is no God in this picture. The human beings who created God have also killed him. It is now up to us alone. The way to live is not to throw ourselves into faith but into our own lives, conducting them in affirmation of every moment, exactly as it without wishing anything was different and without harbouring resentment for others or our fate (Sarah Bakewell, The Existentialist Cafe, p.19-20).

This week in Part II, we'll be looking at what Nietzsche can teach us, as well as engaging in some further analysis and discussion. 

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/becomes the Übermensch

Part I. What is the philosophical underpinning of Nietzsche? (36:40 in Part I)

Part II. An Introduction to Nietzsche’s Thought (50:00 in Part I)

Part III. What can Nietzsche teach us? (00:05 in Part II)

Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (28:15 in Part II)


Episodes 29-31 are proudly supported by New College of the Humanities. To find out more about the college and their philosophy programmes, please visit www.nchlondon.ac.uk/panpsycast


Episode 30, Friedrich Nietzsche - with Mark Linsenmayer and Gregory Sadler (Part I)

Welcome to Episode 30 (Part I of II) on Friedrich Nietzsche with Mark Linsenmayer and Dr Gregory Sadler.

Born in Rocken, in Prussia in 1844, Nietzsche set out his career in philology but later turned to writing idiosyncratic philosophical treatise and collections of aphorisms. He directed these against the pious dogmas of Christianity and traditional philosophy. He saw both as self-serving veils drawn over the harsher realities of life. He felt we needed not a high moral or theological ideals but a deeply critical form of cultural genealogy that would uncover the reasons why we humans are as we are and how we have come to be this way. He believed that every great philosopher actually a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir rather than conducting an impersonal search for knowledge. Studying our own moral genealogy cannot help us escape or transcend ourselves but it can enable us to see our illusions more clearly and lead a more vital, assertive existence. 

There is no God in this picture. The human beings who created God have also killed him. It is now up to us alone. The way to live is not to throw ourselves into faith but into our own lives, conducting them in affirmation of every moment, exactly as it without wishing anything was different and without harbouring resentment for others or our fate (Sarah Bakewell, The Existentialist Cafe, p.19-20).

This week in Part I, we'll be looking at the thinkers who influenced Nietzsche, as well as introducing you to his philosophy. 

Share your thoughts and feedback @thepanpsycast.

The file size is large, please be patient whilst the podcast buffers/downloads/becomes the Übermensch

Part I. What is the philosophical underpinning of Nietzsche? (36:40 in Part I)

Part II. An Introduction to Nietzsche’s Thought (50:00 in Part I)

Part III. What can Nietzsche teach us? (00:05 in Part II)

Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion. (28:15 in Part II)